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Promotion of Dairy Farming
6/1/2020 11:12:35 PM
Dr. Banarsi Lal and Dr. Pawan Sharma

Every year 1st June is celebrated as the World Milk Day across the globe to create awareness on milk as a global food and to highlight the importance of nutrition and economic importance of milk and dairy products for the mankind. This particular day provides an opportunity to focus attention on milk and publicise the activities connected with the milk industry. This day was firstly observed in 2001 by the many countries across the globe and the day as 1st June was decided by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Organisation. This day helps to increase the awareness on all aspects of natural milk such as its natural origin, nutritional value and various milk products including its economic importance. Various health organisations take part in the celebration of this day and also to disseminate the message of milk importance to the common man through the various promotional activities. Milk is a great source of various nutrients required by the body such as calcium,magnesium,zinc,phosphorus,iodine,iron,potassium,folates,vitamin A, vitamin D, Riboflavin, vitamin B12,fat etc. Milk provides instant en energy to the body as it contains high quality proteins. On this day articles, news, press releases etc. are published to highlight the nutritional benefits of milk among the people. Free milk camps are also organised to distribute the free milk among the children. Various programmes such as essay writing, quiz competitions, sports activities, group discussions etc. are organised by various institutions and organisations. Milk is an important liquid for everybody. Milk helps us to have a better health and to maintain it for achieving our goals of life. On this day every information about the positive effects of milk on the body is provided to the people.
Milk helps to develop the body muscles and solves the problem of weakness in the body. Mother milk is also very essential for the children to keep them healthy and fit. Now-a-days people are trying to maintain their body by various types of excercises and Yoga. They are also consuming various types of weight gaining powders without thinking about their side effects. There is urgent need to develop the awareness on the positive effects of the milk on our bodies so that we can achieve our goals in our lives. Now-a-days people eat many types of junk food but that can be harmful for the body. Milk contains every type of nutrients which make our body healthy and fit. Milk has many uses for the different people and various types of products can be made from it. Livestock is emerging as an important sector in the economy of Jammu and Kashmir and plays a significant role in the socio-economic development of the UT. In Jammu and Kashmir the number of animals per 1000 human beings are 882 while at national this number is only 457 as per livestock census2007.But even then the milk and milk production in the state is low. In the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir about 80% of population lives in the rural people and about 60% of the UT’s revenue is generated by the agriculture and animal husbandry sector. Dairy farming is a potential source of additional income for the rural people of J&K . The contribution of dairy sector to the national income is invaluable. This sector provides insurance against crop failures. This sector helps in increasing the crop production by providing the drag power, organic manure and cash income on a regular basis. Although India ranked first in milk production but the productivity of milk in hilly areas of J&K is very less. Maximum milk is produced in certain parts of the UT. Lack of technological dairy information sources is one of the reasons of low milk production for the farmers of hilly areas.
The major occupation of the rural people of J&K is agriculture and livestock rearing is the major source of income and employment. Agriculture and allied sectors contribute about 38% to the state gross domestic product of which 11% is contributed by the livestock. Dairy sector not only generates income and employment among the farmers but also supplements the varied nutritional requirements of the individual. Livestock rearing is an integral part of rural J&K. It has been observed that livestock population of livestock in Jammu and Kashmir (2011-12) has increased over the year 2009-10.Milk production in Jammu and Kashmir is steadily increasing from 1609.24 thousand MTs in 2010-11 to 1614.57 thousand MTs in 2011-12.One of the major bottlenecks in low production in dairy sector is Jammu and Kashmir‘s diversified climate e.g. cold desert in Ladakh region and temperate climate in Kashmir region and humid sub-tropical climate in Jammu region. Small size of land holding (0.67ha) is another hurdle for limited milk production in J&K as this UT does not produce much fodder production because of lack of modern technologies in small farms. Department of Animal Husbandry of J&K and SKUAST-Jammu and Kashmir are providing the technological guidelines to the farmers and also providing the frozen semen of pedigree bulls to the veterinary dispensaries. India is the largest cattle producer in the world and has large animal diversity and is first in buffalo while second in goat production in the world.13 per cent of world’s cattle population and 57 per cent of world’s buffalo population is found in India. Buffaloes contribution towards the milk production in J&K is lesser (0.27%) as compared to the national average (1.84%).Buffaloes breeding programes can be taken in Jammu and Kashmir. There is dire need of cross breed and Jersey bulls in J&K to improve the cattle breed. The emphasis should be given on the use of advanced breeding tools to increase the breeding bulls for expansion of artificial expansion in the UT.
Clinical animal health services with capacity building for superspeciality and advanced medicinal interventions need to be developed. Animal diseases and parasites need to be managed according to the different agro-climatic zones in J&K. Focus should be given on important diseases like foot and mouth disease, mastitis, tuberculosis, metabolic disorders etc. for the safety of animals. Imbalanced animal diet in dairy animals affects their production, reproduction and health. Area specific dairy mineral mixture should be given to the dairy farmers to fulfill the diet of dairy animals. The efforts for the improvement of breed of animals are wasted without proper nutrition. The annual fodder need of J&K is deficit by 60%.From the last one decade the area under fodder in J&K is stagnant. Majority of livestock rearers in J&K are small and landless farmers who have very limited sources of fodder. Feed and fodder are the main factors for the reduction of dairy development in this UT. Fodder availability especially in the offseason is really a great problem for the dairy farmers. There is need to promote feed and fodder resources in J&K. There is need to promote scientific techniques for hay and silage making. Training on scientific cultivation of fodder should be imparted to the farmers and improved/hybrid seed of different fodder crops should be timely provided to the dairy farmers. Cost-effective nutritious feed should be made by the researchers. Promotions of Urea Molasses Multinutrient Blocks (UMBB) in J&K by the SKUAST-Jammu have shown excellent results for the production and reproduction in dairy sector. Research should made in conversion of agricultural products into cattle feed. In hilly terrains still there are certain habitations which lack road connectivity. There is need to develop the infrastructure of dairy plants especially in the hilly areas of J&K so that milk collection can be increased.
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